About Norovirus

From the nation’s leading law firm representing victims of norovirus and other foodborne illness outbreaks.

Chapter 8


1. American Public Health Association (APHA), Heymann, David L., editor, “Norovirus Infection,” in CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES MANUAL, pp. 227-29, (18th Ed. 2008).

2. Antonio, J, et al., “Passenger Behaviors During Norovirus Outbreaks on Cruise Ships,” INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF TRAVEL MAGAZINE, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 172-176 (May-June 2008). Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18494694

3. Benson, V. and Merano, M.A., “Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey 1995,” VITAL HEALTH STATISTICS, SERIES 10 (Nat’l Center for Health Statistics 1998). Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9914773

4. Cáceres, VM, et al., “A viral gastroenteritis outbreak associated with person-to-person spread among hospital staff,” INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 162-7 (March 1998). Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9552183

5. CDC, Norovirus: Technical Fact Sheet, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/gastro/norovirus-factsheet.htm (last modified on August 24, 2011) (last checked on Jan. 3, 2012).

6. CDC, Norovirus in Healthcare Facilities Fact Sheet,available through Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, at http://www.cdc.gov/hai/pdfs/norovirus/229110-ANoroCaseFactSheet508.pdf (last checked on January 4, 2012).

7. CDC, Facts about Norovirus on Cruise Ships, last updated July 20, 2009, available through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/vsp/pub/Norovirus/Norovirus.htm (last checked on January 4, 2012).

8. CDC, “Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis Associated with Noroviruses on Cruise Ships – United States, 2002,” MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT, Vol. 51, No. 49, pp. 1112-15 (Dec. 13, 2002). Full text available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5149a2.htm

9. CDC, “Updated Norovirus Outbreak Management and Disease Prevention Guidelines,” MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT, Vol. 60, Recommendations and Reports No. 3, pp. 1-15 (March 4, 2011). Full text available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr6003a1.htm

10. CDC, “Norwalk-like viruses’—Public health consequences and outbreak management,” MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT, Vol. 50, Recommendations and Reports No. 9, pp. 1-18 (June 1, 2001). Full text available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5009a1.htm

11. Duizer, E, et al., “Probabilities in norovirus outbreak diagnosis,” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL VIROLOGY, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 38-42 (Sept. 2007). Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17631044

12. Donaldson, E., et al., “Viral shape-shifting: norovirus evasion of the human immune system,” NATURE REVIEWS, MICROBIOLOGY, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 231-239 (March 2010). Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20125087

13. Fankhauser, RL, et al., “Epidemiologic and molecular trends of ‘Norwalk-like viruses’ associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States,” JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol.186, No. 1, pp. 1-7 (July 1, 2002). Full text of article available online at http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/186/1/1.long

14. Gerencher, Christine L., Reporter, “Understanding How Disease Is Transmitted via Air Travel: Summary of a Symposium,” Conference Proceedings 47, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies (2010). Full summary available online at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/conf/CP47.pdf

15. Glass, RI, et al., “The Epidemiology of Enteric Caliciviruses from Humans: A Reassessment Using New Diagnostics,” JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 181, Supplement 2, pp. S254-61 (2000). Full text available online at http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/181/Supplement_2/S254.long

16. Glass, R, Parashar, U.D., and Estes, M.K., “Norovirus Gastroenteritis,” NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, Vol. 361, No. 18, pp. 1776-1785 (Oct. 29, 2009). Full text available online at http://www.sepeap.org/archivos/pdf/11191.pdf

17. Janneke, C, et al., “Enhanced Hygiene Measures and Norovirus Transmission during an Outbreak,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 15, No., pp. 24-30 (Jan. 2009). Full text available online at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/15/1/08-0299_article.htm

18. Harris, JP, et al., “Deaths from Norovirus among the Elderly, England and Wales,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 14, No. 10, pp. 1548-1552 (Oct. 2008). Full text available online at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/14/10/08-0188_article.htm

19. Kirkland, KB, et al., “Steaming oysters does not prevent Norwalk-like gastroenteritis,” PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS, Vol. 111, pp. 527-30 (1996). Full text available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1381901/pdf/pubhealthrep00045-0057.pdf

20. Maunula, L, Miettinen, IT, and Bonsdorff, CH, “Norovirus Outbreaks from Drinking Water,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 11, No. 11, pp. 1716-1721 (2005). Full text available online at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/content/11/11/pdfs/v11-n11.pdf

21. Lopman, Ben, Zambon, Maria, and Brown, David, “The Evolution of Norovirus, the ‘Gastric Flu,’” Public Library of Science: Medicine, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp.187-189 (Feb. 2010). Full text available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2235896/pdf/pmed.0050042.pdf

22. Lowther, J, Henshilwood, K, and Lees DN, “Determination of Norovirus Contamination in Oysters from Two Commercial Harvesting Areas over an Extended Period, Using Semiquantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR,” JOURNAL OF FOOD PROTECTION, Vol. 71, No. 7, pp. 1427-1433 (2008). Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18680943

23. Lysen, M, et al., “Genetic Diversity among Food-Borne and Waterborne Norovirus Strains Causing Outbreaks in Sweden,” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Vol. 47, No. 8, pp. 2411-2418 (2009). Full text available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2725682/?tool=pubmed

24. Marks, PJ, et al., “Evidence of airborne transmission of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) in a hotel restaurant,” EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, Vol. 124, No. 3, pp. 481-87 (June 2000). Full text available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Docs/Evidence_for_Airborne_Transmission_of_Norwalk-like_Virus.pdf

25. Mayo Clinic, “Norovirus Infection,” Mayo Clinic Web site, information last updated April 15, 2011 (as of last checking on Jan. 3, 2012), available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/norovirus/DS00942/DSECTION=1

26. Mead, Paul M, et al., “Food-related Illness and Death in the United States,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 607-25 (September-October 1999). Full text available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627714/pdf/10511517.pdf

27. Middleton, PJ, Szmanski, MT, and Petric M, “Viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in young children,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DISEASES OF CHILDREN, Vol. 131, No. 7, pp. 733-37 (July 1977). Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/195461

28. Patterson, T, Hutchin, P, and Palmer S, “Outbreak of SRSV gastroenteritis at an international conference traced to food handled by a post symptomatic caterer,” EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, Vol. 111, No. 1, pp. 157-162 (Aug. 1993). Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2271183/?tool=pubmed

29. Ozawa, K, et al., “Norovirus Infections in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Food Handlers in Japan,” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Vol. 45, No. 12, pp. 3996-4005 (Oct. 2007). Abstract available online at http://jcm.asm.org/content/45/12/3996.abstract

30. Said, Maria, Perl, Trish, and Sears Cynthia, “Gastrointestinal Flu: Norovirus in Health Care and Long-Term Care Facilities,” HEALTHCARE EPIDEMIOLOGY, vol. 47, pp. 1202-1208 (Nov. 1, 2008). Full text available online at http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/9/1202.full.pdf+html

31. Scallan, E., et al., “Foodborne Illness Acquired in the United States—Major Pathogens,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 7-15 (2011). Full text available online at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/17/1/p1-1101_article.htm

32. Siebenga, JJ, et al., “Norovirus Illness Is a Global Problem: Emergence and Spread of Norovirus GII.4 Variants, 2001–2007,” JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 200, No. 5, pp. 802-812 (2009). Full text available online at http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/200/5/802.long

33. Treanor, John J. and Dolin, Raphael, “Norwalk Virus and Other Calciviruses,” in Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Fifth Edition, Chap. 163, pp. 1949-56 (2000, Mandell, Bennett, and Dolan, Editors).

34. Tu, E.T., et al., “Epidemics of Gastroenteritis during 2006 Were Associated with the Spread of Norovirus GII.4 Variants 2006a and 2006b,” CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 413-420 (Feb. 1, 2008). Full text available online at http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/46/3/413.full

35. Tu E.T., et al., “Norovirus excretion in an age-care setting,” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Vol. 46, pp. 2119-21 (June 2008). Full text available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2446857/pdf/2198-07.pdf

36. Verhoef, L, et al., “Emergence of New Norovirus Variants on Spring Cruise Ships and Prediction of Winter Epidemics,” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 238-243 (Feb. 2008). Full text available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600213/pdf/06-1567_finalR.pdf

37. Vinje, J, “A Norovirus Vaccine on the Horizon?” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol. 202, No. 11, pp. 1623-1625 (2010). Full text available online at http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/202/11/1623.full

38. Westrell T, et al., “Norovirus outbreaks linked to oyster consumption in the United Kingdom, Norway, France, Sweden and Denmark,” EURO-SURVEILLANCE (European Communicable Disease Bulletin), Vol. 15, No. 12 (Mar. 25 2010). Full text available online at http://www.eurosurveillance.org/images/dynamic/EE/V15N12/art19524.pdf

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